Career Development Fellow
Sainsbury Laboratory Cambridge
University of Cambridge
Cambridge CB2 1LR
Office Phone: 01223 761146
The mechanics of plant growth
In all organisms, the growing of a shape is a complex process requiring specific gene products, signaling, mechanical alterations, and coordination of cell growth. Our Team addresses this fundamental process in biology using a multidisciplinary approach including: plant physiology, biochemistry, genetics, molecular biology, materials science, and physics.
For a plant cell, the cell wall is the main structural element, controlling shape and growth of the cell and therefore tissue as a whole. Recent work in plants has correlated key aspects of organ growth and shape generation with mechanical properties of tissues and cell walls. Our Team has two main goals: 1) to understand the mechanics of shape growth in plants, and 2) to understand the cell wall as a dynamic composite material.
The mechanics of shape growth in plants
We utilize many different plant species and growth systems to understand how plants grow shapes. From mersitems to hypocotyls, roots, and leaves; drawn from species like tomato, tobacco, maize, moss, sunflower, and Arabidopsis.
Our first aim is to understand, on a simple level, the changes in cell mechanics associated with cell growth. This work is being done in Tobacco BY-2 cells and Arabidopsis protoplasts after wall regeneration. Our further aims centre on describing complex shape growth such as organ formation at shoot meristems (Arabidopiss, maize, sunflower), and anisotropic growth in stems and leaves (Arabidopsis, maize, tomato).
We also aim to describe the molecular-mechanical aspects of the growth of other plant cells, tissues, and organs. We link mechanical changes in the cell wall that regulate growth, to biochemical changes and their control by hormones and gene products. Using this multidisciplinary approach, we hope to begin understanding the mechanical changes associated with the complex shapes grown in nature.
The cell wall as material
The cell wall is an incredibly complex material. In the most basic terms it is a fibre re-enforced gel; however, its structure is dynamic and elusive. We aim to understand how the material properties of the cell wall components, and emergent composite behaviours, relate to its shifting mechanical functions during growth. Understanding this beautiful material shaped by evolution will allow us to understand growth but also provide inspirations for synthetic materials.
We utilize Tobacco BY-2 cells, cell wall mimics, and individual cell wall components to literally untangle the mechanical nature of the plant cell wall material.
Selected Recent Publications
A Weber, S Braybrook, M Huflejt, G Mosca, A L Routier-Kierzkowska, R S Smith. (2015). Measuring the mechanical properties of plant cells by combining micro-indentation with osmotic treatments. Journal of Experimental Botany. first published online April 7, 2015
Z Kong, M Ioki, SA Braybrook, S Li, Z-H Ye, Y-RJ Lee, T Hotta, A Chang, J Tian, G Wang, B Liu (2015). Kinesin-4 functions in vesicular transport on cortical microtubules and regulates cell wall mechanics during cell elongation in plants. Molecular Plant Online Advance
SA Braybrook, A Peaucelle (2013) Mechano-Chemical Aspects of Organ Formation in Arabidopsis thaliana: The Relationship between Auxin and Pectin. PLoS ONE 8(3): e57813. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057813
DH Chitwood, LR Headlan1, ARanjan, SA Braybrook, DP Koenig, C Martinez, C Kuhlemeier, RS Smith, and NR Sinha. 2012. Leaf asymmetry as a developmental constraint imposed by auxin-dependent phyllotactic patterning. The Plant Cell. 24:1-10.
A Peaucelle*, SA Braybrook*, L Le Guillou, E Bron, C Kuhlemeier, H Hofte. 2011. Pectin-Induced Changes in Cell Wall Mechanics Underlie Organ Initiation in Arabidopsis.Current Biology. Online Oct. 6th. *Co-first authors
SL Stone, SA Braybrook, SL Paula, LW Kwong, J Meuser, J Pelletier, T-F Hsieh, RL Fischer, RB Goldberg, JJ Harada. 2008. Arabidopsis LEAFY COTYLEDON2 Induces Maturation Traits and Auxin Activity: Implications for Somatic Embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 105:3151-3156.
SA Braybrook, SL Stone, S Park, AQ Bui, BH Le, RL Fischer, RB Goldberg, JJ Harada. 2006. Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA . Feb 28;103(9):3468-73.
Recent Review Publications
SA Braybrook and H Jonsson. 2015. Shifting foundations: the mechanical cell wall and development. Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 29:115-120.
G Levesque-Tremblay, J Pelloux, SA Braybrook, K Muller. 2015. Tuning of pectin methylesterification: consequences for cell wall biomechanics and development. Planta.
F Bou Daher and SA Braybrook. 2015. How to let go: pectin and plant cell adhesion. Front. Plant Sci. 6:523.
SA Braybrook. 2014. Signalling in plant cell patterning- mechano-molecular theory and phyllotaxis. In: The Biochemist. Special Issue: Signalling in Plants and Microbes
P Milani, SA Braybrook, A Boudaoud. 2013. Shrinking the hammer: micromechanical approaches to morphogenesis. Journal of Experimental Botany. (first published online July 19, 2013)
SA Braybrook, H Hofte, A Peaucelle. 2012. Probing the mechanical contributions of the pectin matrix: insights for cell growth. Plant, Signaling, and Behavior. 7(8):45-46.
A Peaucelle, SA Braybrook, H Hofte. 2012. Cell wall mechanics and growth control in plants: the role of pectins revisited. In: Frontiers in Plant Physiology, Research Topic: Current challenges in plant cell walls. Volume 3, article No. 121.
SA Braybrook and C Kuhlemeier. How a plant builds leaves. 2010. The Plant Cell. 22: 1006-1018.